RAW MATERIALS
The first step is to weigh
Dry mix and ball mill the raw materials
The uniform mixture is then heat treated (calcined) during which the components react to form the polycrystalline phase
 SPRAY DRYING
The calcined powder is spray dried to add binder in order to increase it's reactivity and to improve pressing properties.
Shaping by dry-pressing
 BINDER BURNOUT
The binder is burnt out by slowly heating the green ceramics to around 700oC
The parts are transferred to another furnace, where they are sintered between 1200oC and 1300oC
 GRINDING / POLISHING
The dimensional tolerance of fired parts is improved by cutting, grinding, lapping etc.
Electrodes are applied either by screen printing, chemical plating or vacuum deposition
Poling then is carried out by heating in an oil bath above Curie Temperature, and applying an electrical field of 2-8 kV/mm to align the domains in the material.
 FINAL INSPECTION
Final inspection is performed after a minimum of 24 hours later, and includes testing of electrode-ceramic bonding as well as measurement of dimensional tolerances, dielectric and piezoelectric properties.