The manufacturing process involves a number or stages shown schematically in figures 1 to 12. The first step is to weigh, dry mix and ball mill  the raw materials. The uniform mixture is when heat treated (calcined) , during which the components react to form the polycrystalline phase. The calcined powder is spray dried  to add binder in order to increase it's reactivity and to improve pressing properties.
After shaping by dry-pressing , the binder is burnt out  by slowly heating the green ceramics to around 700oC. The parts are transferred to another furnace, where they are sintered  between 1200 and 1300oC. The dimensional tolerance of fired parts (± 3%) is improved by cutting, grinding, lapping etc. .
Electrodes are applied either by screen printing or chemical plating or vacuum deposition . Poling then is carried out by heating in an oil bath at 130-220oC, and applying an electrical field of 2-8 kV/mm to align the domains in the material . The oil bath is used a heat source and to prevent flash over.
Final inspection  is performed 24 hours later, and includes testing of electrode-ceramic bonding as well as measurement of dimensional tolerances, dielectric and piezoelectric properties.
| Raw Materials|| Mixing|| Calcining|| Milling|
| Spray Drying|| Pressing|| Binder Burnout|| Sintering|
| Grinding/ Polishing|| Electroding|| Poling|| Final Inspection|